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Elongation at Break

Elongation at Break of Plastics
Elongation at Break, also known as fracture strain or tensile elongation at break, is the ratio between increased length and initial length after breakage of the tested specimen at a controlled temperature. It is related to the ability of a plastic specimen to resist changes of shape without cracking.

The elongation is calculated as the relative increase in length.

Elongation = ɛ = (ΔL/L) x 100 

Where:
  » ΔL: Final Length
  » L: Initial Length

Elongation at Break is measured in % (% of elongation vs. initial size when break occurs).

The maximum elongation i.e. at break, emax is also called “strain to failure”.

  • Ultimate elongation values of several hundred percent are common for elastomers and film/packaging polyolefins
  • Rigid plastics, especially fiber reinforced ones, often exhibit values under 5%. 
  • Fibers have a low elongation-to-break and elastomers have a high elongation-to-break

The combination of high ultimate tensile strength and high elongation leads to materials of high toughness.


Elongation at Break measures how much bending and shaping a material can withstand without breaking. The measured elongation at break values are an indication of the ductility of a polymer.

Elongation at break is important in components that absorb energy by plastic deformation. High elongation at break is important for plastic hinges.

Applications include:
  » Define ductility of polymers
  » Important for energy absorbing materials by plastic deformation
  » Screen materials for use as plastic hinges



Check out more on Elongation at Break:

  » Elongation at Break Values of Several Plastics
  » How to Calculate the Elongation at Break of Plastic
  » Factors Affecting Elongation at Break


How to Measure Elongation at Break?


Tensile tests measure the force required to break a specimen and the extent to which the specimen stretches or elongates to that breaking point.

In general, “tensile test methods” are applied measure elongation at break of materials. The common methods used are:

  • ASTM D638 - Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics
  • ISO 527-1:2012 - Determination of tensile properties. General principles

Ofcourse there exist several other methods as well as listed below, but they are not discussed here.

ASTM D638 and ISO 527 test methods


ASTM D638 and ISO 527 test methods cover the determination of the tensile properties of plastics and plastic composites under defined conditions in the form of standard dumbbell-shaped test specimens. The defined conditions can range from pretreatment, temperature, humidity, to testing machine speed.

The methods are used to investigate the tensile behavior of the test specimens.

And, the following calculations can be made from tensile test results:

  • Tensile strength (at yield and at break)
  • Tensile modulus
  • Strain
  • Elongation and percent elongation at yield
  • Elongation and percent elongation at break

For ASTM D638 the test speed is determined by the material specification. For ISO 527 the test speed is typically 5 or 50mm/min for measuring strength and elongation and 1mm/min for measuring modulus.

An extensometer is used to determine elongation and tensile modulus.

Factors Affecting Elongation at Break


  • Velocity of Testing
    Slow testing allows for polymer relaxation and higher elongation at break values

  • Orientation Level
    Fibers that are less oriented tend to exhibit greater degrees of elongation at break

  • Temperature
    In general, the elongation at break increases with an increase in temperature

  • Filler Content
    The elongation at break of composites decreases with an increase in the filler content


Find commercial grades matching your target using "Property Search - Elongation at Break" filter in Omnexus Plastics Database:


Omnexus Plastics Database - Property Search

Elongation at Break Values of Several Plastics


Click to find polymer you are looking for:
A-C     |      E-M     |      PA-PC     |      PE-PL     |      PM-PP     |      PS-X

Polymer Name Min Value (%) Max Value (%)
ABS - Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene 10.0 50.0
ABS Flame Retardant 2.0 80.0
ABS High Heat 2.0 100.0
ABS High Impact 2.0 100.0
ABS/PC Blend - Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene/Polycarbonate Blend 60.0 85.0
ABS/PC Blend 20% Glass Fiber 1.90 2.10
ABS/PC Flame Retardant 50.0 90.0
ASA - Acrylonitrile Styrene Acrylate 15.0 40.0
ASA/PC Blend - Acrylonitrile Styrene Acrylate/Polycarbonate Blend 25.0 50.0
ASA/PVC Blend - Acrylonitrile Styrene Acrylate/Polyvinyl Chloride Blend 40.00 70.00
CA - Cellulose Acetate 16.00 53.00
CAB - Cellulose Acetate Butyrate 40.00 90.00
Celllulose Diacetate-Pearlescent Films 25.00 45.00
Celllulose Diacetate-Gloss Film 25.00 45.00
Celllulose Diacetate-Integuard Films 5.00 15.00
Celllulose Diacetate-Matt Film 25.00 45.00
Cellulose Diacetate-Window Patch Film (Food Grade) 25.00 45.00
Cellulose Diacetate-Clareflect metallized film 30.00 50.00
Cellulose Diacetate-Colored Films 25.00 45.00
Cellulose Diacetate-Flame retardant Film 20.00 40.00
Cellulose Diacetate-High Slip Film 25.00 40.00
Cellulose Diacetate-Semitone Films 20.00 45.00
CP - Cellulose Proprionate 30.00 10.00
COC - Cyclic Olefin Copolymer 1.700 4.500
CPVC - Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride 23.00 50.00
ECTFE - Ethylene ChloroTriFluoroEthylene 250.00 325.00
ETFE - Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene 100.00 300.00
EVA - Ethylene Vinyl Acetate 200.00 990.00
EVOH - Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol 180.00 350.00
FEP - Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene 250.00 300.00
HDPE - High Density Polyethylene 500.00 700.00
HIPS - High Impact Polystyrene 10.00 65.00
HIPS Flame Retardant V0 10.00 50.00
Ionomer (Ethylene-Methyl Acrylate Copolymer) 290.00 740.00
LCP - Liquid Crystal Polymer 1.00 3.00
LCP Carbon Fiber-reinforced 1.00 1.00
LCP Glass Fiber-reinforced 1.00 3.00
LCP Mineral-filled 2.00 5.50
LDPE - Low Density Polyethylene 200.00 600.00
LLDPE - Linear Low Density Polyethylene 300.00 900.00
MABS - Transparent Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene 12.00 20.00
PA 11 - (Polyamide 11) 30% Glass fiber reinforced 3.00 6.00
PA 11, Conductive 186.00 186.00
PA 11, Flexible 225.00 405.00
PA 11, Rigid 225.00 355.0
PA 12 (Polyamide 12), Conductive 186.00 186.00
PA 12, Fiber-reinforced 4.00 8.00
PA 12, Flexible 300.00 340.00
PA 12, Glass Filled 30.00 40.00
PA 12, Rigid 250.00 390.00
PA 46 - Polyamide 46 160.00 300.00
PA 46, 30% Glass Fiber 11.00 15.00
PA 6 - Polyamide 6 200.00 300.00
PA 6-10 - Polyamide 6-10 150.00 300.00
PA 66 - Polyamide 6-6 150.00 300.00
PA 66, 30% Glass Fiber 2.00 2.20
PA 66, 30% Mineral filled 2.00 45.00
PA 66, Impact Modified, 15-30% Glass Fiber 3.00 10.00
PA 66, Impact Modified 150.00 300.00
Polyamide 66 (Nylon 66), Long Glass Fiber, 40% Filler by Weight 2.00 2.00
Polyamide 66 (Nylon 66), Long Glass Fiber, 50% Filler by Weight 2.00 2.00
Polyamide 66 (Nylon 66), Long Glass Fiber, 60% Filler by Weight 2.00 2.00
Polyamide semi-aromatic 50.00 200.00
PAI - Polyamide-Imide 3.00 15.00
PAI, 30% Glass Fiber 6.00 7.00
PAI, Low Friction 7.00 9.00
PAN - Polyacrylonitrile 3.00 4.00
PAR - Polyarylate 50.00 100.00
PARA (Polyarylamide), 30-60% glass fiber 1.80 2.00
PBT - Polybutylene Terephthalate 5.00 300.00
PBT, 30% Glass Fiber 2.00 3.00
PC (Polycarbonate) 20-40% Glass Fiber 2.00 4.00
PC (Polycarbonate) 20-40% Glass Fiber Flame Retardant 2.00 4.00
PC - Polycarbonate, high heat 50.00 120.00
PC/PBT Blend - Polycarbonate/Polybutylene Terephthalate Blend 4.00 175.00
PC/PBT blend, Glass Filled 2.00 4.00
PCL - Polycaprolactone 600.00 900.00
PCTFE - Polymonochlorotrifluoroethylene 80.00 180.00
PE - Polyethylene 30% Glass Fiber 1.500 2.500
PE/TPS Blend - Polyethylene/Thermoplastic Starch 400.00 700.00
PEEK - Polyetheretherketone 30.00 150.00
PEEK 30% Carbon Fiber-reinforced 1.00 3.00
PEEK 30% Glass Fiber-reinforced 2.00 3.00
PEI - Polyetherimide 59.00 60.00
PEI, 30% Glass Fiber-reinforced 3.00 3.00
PEI, Mineral Filled 6.00 6.00
PEKK (Polyetherketoneketone), Low Cristallinity Grade 80.00 80.00
PESU - Polyethersulfone 10.00 80.00
PESU 10-30% glass fiber 2.00 6.00
PET - Polyethylene Terephthalate 30.00 70.00
PET, 30% Glass Fiber-reinforced 2.00 7.00
PET, 30/35% Glass Fiber-reinforced, Impact Modified 6.00 6.00
PETG - Polyethylene Terephthalate Glycol 50.00 50.00
PFA - Perfluoroalkoxy 300.00 300.00
PGA - Polyglycolides 15.00 20.00
PHB - Polyhydroxybutyrate 3.00 6.00
PHB-V (5% valerate) 5.00 10.00
PI - Polyimide 90.00 90.00
PLA - Polylactide 5.00 7.00
PLA, High Heat Films 179.00 181.00
PLA,injection molding 2.00 3.00
PMMA - Polymethylmethacrylate/Acrylic 2.00 10.00
PMMA (Acrylic) High Heat 2.00 10.00
PMMA (Acrylic) Impact Modified 4.00 70.00
PMP - Polymethylpentene 7.50 30.00
PMP 30% Glass Fiber-reinforced 2.00 3.00
PMP Mineral Filled 20.00 30.00
POM - Polyoxymethylene (Acetal) 15.00 75.00
POM (Acetal) Impact Modified 60.00 200.00
POM (Acetal) Low Friction 10.00 70.00
POM (Acetal) Mineral Filled 5.00 55.00
PP - Polypropylene 10-20% Glass Fiber 3.00 4.00
PP, 10-40% Mineral Filled 30.00 50.00
PP, 10-40% Talc Filled 20.00 30.00
PP, 30-40% Glass Fiber-reinforced 2.00 3.00
PP (Polypropylene) Copolymer 200.00 500.00
PP (Polypropylene) Homopolymer 150.00 60.00
PP Homopolymer, Long Glass Fiber, 30% Filler by Weight 2.00 2.00
PP Homopolymer, Long Glass Fiber, 40% Filler by Weight 2.00 2.00
PP Homopolymer, Long Glass Fiber, 50% Filler by Weight 2.00 2.00
PP, Impact Modified 200.00 700.00
PPA - Polyphthalamide 2.60 30.00
PPA – 30% Mineral-filled 1.10 1.30
PPA, 33% Glass Fiber-reinforced 2.00 2.20
PPA, 33% Glass Fiber-reinforced – High Flow 1.70 1.90
PPA, 45% Glass Fiber-reinforced 227.00 229.00
PPE - Polyphenylene Ether 45.00 60.00
PPE, 30% Glass Fiber-reinforced 3.00 3.00
PPE, Flame Retardant 30.00 50.00
PPE, Impact Modified 40.00 60.00
PPE, Mineral Filled 20.00 40.00
PPS - Polyphenylene Sulfide 1.00 4.00
PPS, 20-30% Glass Fiber-reinforced 1.00 2.00
PPS, 40% Glass Fiber-reinforced 1.00 2.00
PPS, Conductive 0.50 3.00
PPS, Glass fiber & Mineral-filled 1.000 3.00
PPSU - Polyphenylene Sulfone 30.00 90.00
PS (Polystyrene) 30% glass fiber 1.00 1.50
PS (Polystyrene) Crystal 1.00 4.00
PS, High Heat 1.00 4.00
PSU - Polysulfone 50.00 100.00
PSU, 30% Glass fiber-reinforced 2.00 3.00
PSU Mineral Filled 2.00 5.00
PTFE - Polytetrafluoroethylene 200.00 400.00
PTFE, 25% Glass Fiber-reinforced 100.00 300.00
PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride), 20% Glass Fiber-reinforced 2.00 5.00
PVC, Plasticized 100.00 400.00
PVC, Plasticized Filled 200.00 500.00
PVC Rigid 25.00 80.00
PVDC - Polyvinylidene Chloride 160.00 250.00
PVDF - Polyvinylidene Fluoride 50.00 300.00
SAN - Styrene Acrylonitrile 2.00 5.00
SAN, 20% Glass Fiber-reinforced 1.00 2.00
SMA - Styrene Maleic Anhydride 2.00 30.00
SMA, 20% Glass Fiber-reinforced 2.00 3.00
SMA, Flame Retardant V0 2.00 2.00
SMMA - Styrene Methyl Methacrylate 2.10 52.00
SRP - Self-reinforced Polyphenylene 6.00 10.00
TPS/PE BLend - Thermoplastic Starch/ Polyethylene Blend (30 micron films tested) 300.00 350.00
TPS, Injection General Purpose 25.00 135.00
TPS, Water Resistant 2.00 2.00
UHMWPE - Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene 200.00 500.00
XLPE - Crosslinked Polyethylene 10.00 440.00

Find commercial grades matching your target using "Property Search - Elongation at Break" filter in Omnexus Plastics Database:


Omnexus Plastics Database - Property Search

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