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Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE): Everything You Need to Know

Undoubtedly, fluoropolymer is a class of plastics offering a varied range of properties. And, the discovery of PTFE revolutionized the emergence of fluoropolymers and their benefit in several applications.

Today, PTFE applications range from low-tech non-stick frying pan surfaces (yes! it is the slippery coating in your cookware you use in your kitchen) to high-tech exotic medical and hospital uses including implants, surgical instruments and test equipment, and dramatic uses in firefighting equipment etc.

Find out what properties make PTFE a versatile polymer offering various advantages in these applications. Learn about its characteristics, properties and much more...

What is PTFE?


Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE): Everything You Need to KnowPolytetrafluoroethylene or PTFE is the commonly used versatile, high-performance fluoropolymer made up for carbon and fluorine atoms. One of the common applications of this polymer is non-stick coating in kitchen cookware (pans, baking trays etc.), hence, you can easily find this in your kitchen.

Apart from used in the kitchen, PTFE is used as a cost-effective solution for industries ranging from oil & gas, chemical processing, industrial to electrical/electronic and construction sector, etc.


The basic properties of PTFE which make it an interesting material with high commercial value are:

  • Exception chemical resistance
  • Good resistance to heat and low temperature
  • Good electrical insulating power in hot and wet environments
  • Good resistance to light, UV and weathering
  • Low coefficient of friction
  • Low dielectric constant/dissipation factor
  • Strong anti-adhesion properties
  • Flexibility
  • Good fatigue resistance under low stress
  • Availability of food, medical and high-purity grades
  • Low water absorption

PTFE is a linear polymer of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE). It is manufactured by free-radical polymerization mechanism in an aqueous media via addition polymerization of TFE in a batch process.

The chemical structure of PTFE [CF2-CF2]n is like that of polyethylene (PE), except that the hydrogen atoms are completely replaced by fluorine (hence it is referred as perfluoro polymer). However, it is important to note that in practice PTFE and PE are prepared and used in totally different ways.

Molecular Structure of PTFE
Molecular Structure of PTFE

It is the size of fluorine atom which forms a uniform and continuous sheath around carbon-carbon-bonds and hence imparts good chemical resistance and stability to the molecule. This uniform fluorine sheath also provides electrical inertness to the molecule.

The fluorine content in PTFE is theoretically 76% and it has 95% crystallinity.

PTFE was first discovered “accidentally” in 1938 by Dr. Plunkett at DuPont. After that PTFE was made commercially available in 1947 with the trademark “Teflon™” from Chemours. It was the discovery of PTFE that accelerated the development of the other fluoropolymers.

Some typical commercially available PTFE grades are:


» View All Commercially Available PTFE Grades & Suppliers in Omnexus Plastics Database

This plastic database is available to all, free of charge. You can filter down your options by property (mechanical, electrical…), applications, conversion mode and many more dimensions.

The other commonly known fluoropolymers include PCTFE, PVF, PVDF, ECTFE, ETFE and many more.


Typical Characteristics and Properties of PTFE


PTFE is available in granular, fine powder and water-based dispersion forms.

  • The granular PTFE resin is produced by suspension polymerization in an aqueous medium with little or no dispersing agent. Granular PTFE resins are mainly used for molding (compression and isostatic) and ram extrusion.
  • The fine PTFE powder is prepared by controlled emulsion polymerization, and the products are white, small sized particles. Fine PTFE powders can be processed into thin sections by paste extrusion or used as additives to increase wear resistance or frictional property of other materials.
  • PTFE dispersions are prepared by the aqueous polymerization using more dispersing agent with agitation. Dispersions are used for coatings and film casting.

As discussed above, PTFE has excellent properties such as chemical inertness, heat resistance (both high and low), electrical insulation properties, low coefficient of friction (static 0.08 and dynamic 0.01), and nonstick property over a wide temperature range (260 to 260°C).

  • It has a density in the range of 2.1 - 2.3 g/cm3 and melt viscosity in the range of 1 -10 GPa per second

  • PTFE is among the most chemically resistant polymer. The exceptions include molten alkali metals, gaseous fluorine at high temperatures and pressures, and few organic halogenated compounds such as chlorine trifluoride (ClF3) and oxygen difluoride (OF2)...View PTFE Grades With Good Chemical Resistance

  • Mechanical properties of PTFE are generally inferior to engineering plastics at the room temperature. Compounding with fillers has been the strategy to overcome this shortage. PTFE has useful mechanical properties in its use temperature range.

    The mechanical properties of PTFE are also affected by processing variables such a preform pressure, sintering temperature, cooling rate etc. Polymer variable such as molar mass, particle size, particle size distribution poses significant impact on mechanical properties.

  • PTFE has excellent electrical properties such as high insulation resistance, low dielectric constant. has an extremely low dielectric constant (2.0) due to the highly symmetric structure of the macromolecules.

  • PTFE exhibits high thermal stability without obvious degradation below 440 °C

  • PTFE materials can be continuously used below 260°C.

  • PTFE is attacked by radiation, and degradation in air begins at a dose of 0.02 Mrad.

These properties come from the special electronic structure of the fluorine atom, the stable carbon-fluorine covalent bonding, and the unique intramolecular and intermolecular interactions between the fluorinated polymer segments and the main chains.


Property Value
Melting Temperature (°C) 317-337
Tensile Modulus (MPa) 550
Elongation at Break (%) 300-550
Dielectric strength (kV/mm) 19.7
Dielectric Constant 2.0
Dynamic Co-efficient of Friction 0.04
Surface Energy (Dynes/g) 18
Appl. Temperature (°C) 260
Refractive Index 1.35


Limitation of PTFE


The conventional PTFE has some limitations in its applications, such as:

  • Impossibility of using conventional molten-state processing methods and difficulty and cost of the suitable specific methods
  • Sensitivity to creep and abrasion
  • Significant dimensional variation around glass transition temperature (19°C)
  • Difficulties of joining
  • Corrosive and prone to toxic fumes
  • Low radiation resistance


Impact of Fillers and Additives on PTFE Properties


Mechanical properties of PTFE can be enhanced with the addition of fillers, particularly creep and wear rate. Glass fiber, bronze, steel, carbon, carbon fiber, graphite, etc. are among the common fillers used.

Glass fiber has a positive impact on creep performance of PTFE by reducing its low and high temperatures. Glass filled compounds perform well in oxidizing environments. Further, PTFE’s wear characteristics are improved.

Carbon reduces creep, increases hardness and elevates thermal conductivity of PTFE. When combined with graphite, the wear resistance of carbon-filled compounds can be improved further. These compounds are well suited for non-lubricated applications such as piston rings in compressor cylinder. Further, graphite imparts excellent wear properties to PTFE and graphite-filled PTFE has an extremely low coefficient of friction.

Carbon fiber lowers creep, increases flex and compressive modulus and raises hardness. Unlike glass fibers, carbon fibers are inert to hydrofluoric acid and strong bases. Carbon fiber PTFE compounds have lower coefficient of thermal expansion and high thermal conductivity. These parts are ideal for automotive parts in shock absorbers, water pumps etc.

Bronze-filled PTFE compounds have high thermal and electrical conductivity which is in turn make these compounds well fit for application where a part is subjected to load in extreme temperatures.

Other fillers which are incorporated in PTFE to produce specialty compounds include Calcium fluoride, Alumina, Mica, polymeric fillers.

In general:

  • Fillers result in excellent properties of PTFE at low and high temperatures.
  • Fillers/additives increase the porosity of PTFE compounds and hence impact electrical properties – dielectric strength decreases while dielectric constant and dissipation factor increases
  • Chemical properties well depend on type of filler used. In general, chemical properties of filled PTFE compounds are not as good as those of unfilled resin.
  • Filler impart change in electrical and thermal conductivity of PTFE

Up to 40% by volume of filler can be added to the PTFE without complete loss of physical properties
The impact of fillers below 5% is low.


Where can you find PTFE use?


Fluorinated thermoplastics are only used for high performance applications related to high heat, low temperature, chemical inertness, high purity, non-sticking and self-lubricating properties. Further high purity grades are used in semiconductor, pharmaceutical and other similar sectors.

Due to its special chemical and physical properties, PTFE are widely applied in the chemical, electrical/electronic, construction, architectural, and automotive industries.


Applications of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
Applications of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)

Filled granular resins were found to be suitable for parts such as gaskets, shaft seals, bearing, piston rings etc.

Automotive O-rings, gaskets, valve stem seals, shaft seals, linings for fuel hoses, power steering and transmission etc.
Chemical Industry Coatings for heat exchangers, pumps, diaphragms, impellers, tanks, reaction vessels, autoclaves, containers etc.
Electrical & Electronics Electrical insulation, flexible printed circuit boards, semiconductor parts
Engineering Seats and plugs, bearing, non-stick surfaces, coatings for pipes, fittings, valve and pump parts
Medical Cardiovascular grafts, ligament replacement, heart patches


Popular Techniques Used to Process PTFE


PTFE has the very high melt viscosity and a high melting temperature due to rigid polymer chain structure that makes processing difficult by the normal methods of extrusion and injection molding. Processing technologies have more similarity to those of powder metallurgy than those of traditional plastics processing.

  • Sintering, pressing, ram or paste extrusion, compression molding or isotactic molding, machining, hot stamping and extrusion of presintered powders on special machines.
  • Paste extrusion in which PTFE is blended with a hydrocarbon, prior to molding a preform, is used to continuously fabricate PTFE into tubes, tapes, and wire insulation. The hydrocarbon is vaporized before the part is sintered
  • Dispersion – metal coatings, coatings, pulverization, impregnation, cast for thin films and fiber spinning.
  • [Operating range (-270°C) -200°C to 260°C (280°C)]

The properties of the PTFE products are strongly dependent on the processing procedure, such as polymer particle size, sintering temperature and processing pressure. Therefore, other fluoropolymers are still needed for some specific applications where PTFE is not completely suitable.

This led to a search for melt-processable fluoropolymers and the development of other members of the family.

Commercially Available Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Grades







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